Fast Historic Assessment II for the Egyptian historical past from Arab Conquest 640 A.C to Mamluk Rule. Arab Conquest in 640 A.C. In 640 an occasion befell that deeply affected Egypt. The Arab common Amr ibn al-As,, a companion of the Prophet Mohamed, died 663,, was a pacesetter for a military who got here to Egypt via Sinai Peninsula to the Nile Valley, defeating the Byzantines at Heliopolis close to what’s now Cairo. Inside two years the Arabs had triumphed over the Nile Valley, the Delta, and Alexandria, marking the start of Islam in Egypt that’s lasting till now.